The Turin Papyrus, also known as the Turin King List, or, the Turin Royal Canon, is a hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Ramesses II (c. 1200 BC), now in the Egyptian Museum in Turin. It is the most extensive list of kings known and is the basis for most of the Egyptian chronology before Ramesses II.


The Turin Papyrus, also known as the Turin King List, or, the Turin Royal Canon, is a hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Ramesses II (c. 1200 BC), now in the Egyptian Museum in Turin.

Unlike the other king lists, the Turin Papyrus includes foreign kings that ruled Egypt and lists the names of the rulers, the lengths of reigns in years, months, and days for each individual king. It also includes the names of ephemeral rulers and those ruling over small territories that may be unmentioned in other sources.

The papyrus was found by the Italian traveler Bernardino Drovetti in 1820 at Luxor, Egypt. Sadly, when it was unpacked in Italy, the list had disintegrated into small fragments, most of the list ruined forever.

The Turin Papyrus contain eleven columns and is also divided into ten sections, or dynasties (A-J) if you will, with summations and headings intersecting the list of kings. These dynasties does not synchronize well with Manetho – neither the number of kings, nor number of dynasties. Just have a look in the table below.

The papyrus is divided like this:

Dynasty Rows and Columns Description
A 2.10-3.25 38 kings (Dynasties 1-5)
  3.26 Summation of A
B 4.1-4.13 13 kings (Dynasty 6)
  4.14-4.17 Summation of A and A+B
  4.18 Heading of C?
C 4.19-5.9 17 or 18 kings (Dynasty 8-10)
  5.10 Summation of C
  5.11 Heading of D
D 5.12-5.17 6 kings (Dynasty 11)
  5.18 Summation of D
  5.19 Heading of E
E 5.20-6.2 8 kings (Dynasty 12)
  6.3 Summation of E
Dynasty Rows and Columns Description
  6.4 Heading of F
F 6.5-10.12 116 kings (Dynasty 13-14)
  10.13 Summation of F
  10.14 Heading of G
G 10.15-10.20 6 kings (Dynasty 15)
  10.21 Summation of G
  10.22 Heading of H
H 10.24-10.29 7 kings (Dynasty 16?)
  10.30 Summation of H
I 11.1-11.14 14 kings (Dynasty 17)
  11.15 Summation of I
J 11.16-11.17 2 kings

turinroyalcanon

# Hieroglyphs Name in list Pharaoh
2.10 Meni
Y5:N35-M17-A1
Meni
m-n-i
Narmer
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 1
2.11 Meni
Y5:N35-M17-Z4-G7
Meni
m-n-i
Narmer
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 1
2.12 Teti
X1:X1-Z4-M17-v/
Teti
t-t-i
Aha
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 2
2.13/14 Atet...
M17-Z1-//-G7
Atet…
i-t-t..
Djer
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 3
2.15 ..tiu
//-G1-M17
..tiu
..tiw
Wadj
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 4
2.16 Qenenti
Aa8*X1:Z4
Qenenti
q-n-n-ti
Den
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 5
2.17 Merigeregipen
U7:D21-U17-Q3:N35
Merigeregipen
mri-grg-ipn
Anedjib
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 6
2.18 Semsem
S29-G17-S29-G17
Semsem
sm-sm
Semerkhet
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 7
2.19 ..beh
//-D58-V28
..beh
..bH
Qaa
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 8
2.20 Bauhetepju
//-G30-R4:Z2
Bauhetepju
bAw-Htpiw
Hetepsekhemwy
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 1
2.21 Kakau
//-D52:E2-G43
Kakau
kA-kAw
Nebra
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 2
2.22 ..netjeren
//-nTr-r:n
..netjeren
..nTr-rn
Ninetjer
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 3
2.23 ..es
//-S29
..es
..s
Wadjnes
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 4
2.24 Senedj
G54-//
Senedj
snD
Senedj
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 5
2.25 Neferka
F35-D28-Z1
Neferka
nfr-kA
Neferkara I
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 8
3.1 Neferkasokar
F35-D28-Z1-O34:V31:D21-Z5-G7
Neferkasokar
nfr-kA-skr
Neferkaseker
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 9
3.10 Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Khufu
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 2
3.11 Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Djedefra
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 3
3.12 Kha..
//-N28://-G7
Kha..
..-xa-..
Khafra
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 4
3.13 Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Baka
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 5
3.14 Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Menkaura
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 6
3.15 Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Shepseskaf
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 7
3.16 Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Thamphthis
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 8
3.17 ..ka
//-D28-Z1-G7
..ka
..kA
Userkaf
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 1
3.18   Sahura
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 2
3.19   Neferirkara I Kakai
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 3
3.2 Hudjefa
V28-I10:I9-G1-G41:G37
Hudjefa
Hw-DfA
Hudjefa I
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 10
3.20   Shepseskara Netjeruser
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 4
3.21   Neferefra Isi
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 5
3.22   Niuserra Ini
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 6
3.23 Menkahor
G5-G7-Y5:N35-D28-Z1-G7
Menkahor
mn-kA-Hr
Menkauhor Kaiu
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 7
3.24 Djedu
R11-R11
Djedu
Ddw
Djedkara Isesi
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 8
3.25 Unas
E34:N35-M17-S29
Unas
wnis
Unas
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 9
3.3 Bebeti
D58-D58-X1:Z4-//
Bebeti
b-b-t-i
Khasekhemwy
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 11
3.4 Nebka
V30-D28-Z1-//
Nebka
nb-kA
Nebka
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 1
3.5 Djeserit
D45:D21-M17-X1-G7
Djeserit
Dsr-it
Djeser
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 2
3.6 Djeserti
D45:D21-X1:Z4-G7
Djeserti
Dsr-ti
Sekhemkhet
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 3
3.7 Hudjefa
//-G41:G37-G7
Hudjefa
HwDfA
Hudjefa II
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 4
3.9 Snefer..
S29-F35-//-G7
Snefer..
s-nfr..
Sneferu
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 1
4.1   Teti II
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 1
4.10 Nefer
F35-I9:D21-G7
Nefer
nfr
Neferkara Neby
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 4
4.2   Userkara
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 2
4.20 Neferkara
N5-F35-D28-Z1-G7
Neferkara
nfr-kA-ra
Neferkara III
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 2
4.21 Khet-ity
F32:t-A50-U33-i-G7-//
Khet-ity
xt-iti
Wahkara Khety I
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 1
4.22 Senenh..
S29-M23-M23-N35:N35-A53-O4
Senenh..
s-sw-sw-n-n-wi-h
Isu
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 24
4.23 ..nu..
//-W24-//
..nu..
..nw..
Iytenu
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 25
4.23 Neferkara
N5-F35-D28
Neferkara
nfr-kA-ra
Neferkara Khety III
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 4
4.24 Meri..
U7:D21-//
Meri..
mri
Meribra Khety II
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 3
4.3   Pepi I
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 3
4.4   Nemtiemsaf I
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 4
4.5   Pepi II
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 5
4.6   Nemtiemsaf II
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 6
4.8 Nitiqerty
N35:X1*Z5-M17-N29:D21-X1:Z4-G7
Nitiqerty
nit-iqr-ti
Netjerikara
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 1
4.8 Saptah
G7-G39-Z1-Q3:X1-V28
Saptah
sA-ptH
Netjerikara
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 1
4.9 Neferka
F35-D28-Z1-G7
Neferka
nfr-kA
Neferkara II
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 3
5.16 Nebhapetra
N5:V30-P8-G7
Nebhapetra
nb-HApt-ra
Mentuhetep II
Dynasty XI, Pharaoh 5
5.17 Sankhka..
S29-S34-N35:Aa1-D28
Sankhka..
s-anx-kA..
Mentuhetep III
Dynasty XI, Pharaoh 6
6.1 Maatkherura
N5-U4:D36-P8-Z7-A17
Maatkherura
mAat-xrw-ra
Amenemhat IV
Dynasty XII, Pharaoh 7
6.19 Sekhemra Khutawy Sebekhetep
N5-Y8-D44:N17:N17-I4-R4:X1*Q3
Sekhemra Khutawy Sebekhetep
sxm-ra xwi-tAwi sbk-Htp
Sebekhetep II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 16
6.2 Neferusobekra
N5-F35-F35-F35-I5A-G7
Neferusobekra
nfrw-sbk-ra
Neferusobek
Dynasty XII, Pharaoh 8
6.20 User..ra Khendjer
N5-F12-//-Z1-N5:N35-M36:D21
User..ra Khendjer
wsr-..-ra xnDr
Khendjer
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 17
6.20 Khendjer
Aa1:N35-M36:D21
Khendjer
xnDr
Khendjer
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 17
6.21 ..kara
N5-//-D28-G7
..kara
..kA-ra
Imyremeshaw
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 18
6.22 ..ka
//-D28-Z1
..ka
..kA
Intef IV
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 19
6.22 Intef
W25:N35-X1:I9
Intef
ini.it.f
Intef IV
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 19
6.23 ..ib..
//-F34-Z1-G7
..ib..
..ib..
Seth I
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 20
6.23 Seth
C7
Seth
stH
Seth I
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 20
6.24 Sekhemra .. Sebekhetep
N5-Y8-//-I5-R4:X1-Q3
Sekhemra .. Sebekhetep
sxm-ra swAD-tAwi sbk-Htp
Sebekhetep III
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 21
6.25 Sekhemra Sewadjtawy Sebekhetep
N5-N28:D36-v/-S42-F35-R4:X1*Q3
Sekhemra Sewadjtawy Sebekhetep
sxm-ra swAD-tAwi sbk-Htp
Neferhetep I
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 22
6.26 Sahathor
N5-O6-X1:O1-G5-G7-G38&Z1-G7
Sahathor
sA-HtHr
Sahathor
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 23
6.27 Khaneferra
N5-N28:D36-Y1-F35-I3-R4:X1*Q3
Khaneferra
xai-nfr-ra
Sebekhetep IV
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 24
6.5 Khutawyra
N5-D43:N17:N17-G7
Khutawyra
xw-tAwi-ra
Khutawyra Wegaf
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 1
6.6 Sekhemkara
N5-Y8-D28-Z1
Sekhemkara
sxm-kA-ra
Amenemhat V
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 2
7.1 Khahetepra
N5-N28:D36:Y1-R4:X1*Q3
Khahetepra
xai-Htp-ra
Sebekhetep V
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 25
7.13 ..mesu?
//-F31-S29-Z5
..mesu?
..-ms-s-ms
Dedumose II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 34
7.14 ..maatra
N5-//-U4:D40-X1-H6
..maatra
..-mAat-ra
Ibi II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 35
7.14 Ibi
M17-D58-E8-M17-A1
Ibi
ibi
Ibi II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 35
7.15 ..webenra
N5-v/-G43-D58-(N35:N5)
..webenra
..ben-ra
Hor II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 36
7.15 Hor
G5-v/
Hor
Hr..
Hor II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 36
7.16 Se--kara
N5-S29-//-D28-Z1-G7
Se–kara
s..kA-ra
Se..kara
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 37
7.17 ..enra
N5-//-(Y1:N35)
..enra
..n-ra
Senebmiu
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 38
7.2 Wahibra Iaib
N5-V29-V28-Y1:F34*Z1-M17-D36:N35:N35:N35-A24-F34:Z1
Wahibra Iaib
wAH-ib-ra iai-ib
Wahibra Jaib
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 26
7.22 Merkheperra
N5-U7:D21-L1
Merkheperra
mr-xpr-ra
Merkheperra
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 39
7.23 Merkara
N5-U7-D28-Z1
Merkara
mr-kA-ra
Merkara
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 40
7.4 Merhetepra
N5-U7:D21-R4:X1*Q3
Merhetepra
mr-r-Htp-ra
Sebekhetep VI
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 28
7.5 Sankhenra Sewadjtu
N5-S29-S34-N35:Aa1:N35-S29-M13-X1:Z7
Sankhenra Sewadjtu
sanx-n-ra swADtw
Sewadjtu
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 29
7.6 Mersekhemra Ined
N5-U7:D21-S42-Z1-M17-K1:N35-D46:G36
Mersekhemra Ined
mr-sxm-ra ind
Neferhetep II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 30
7.7 Sewadjkara
N5-S29-M13-D28-Z1-G7
Sewadjkara
swAD-kA-ra
Hori
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 31
7.8 Merkau(ra) Sebek(hetep)
v/-U7:D21-D28-Z1-v/-I3-//
Merkau(ra) Sebek(hetep)
mr-kAw-[ra] sbk-[Htp]
Sebekhetep VII
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 32
8.1 Nehesi
G21-V28-S29-Z4-T14
Nehesi
nHsi
Nehesi
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 1
8.2 Khatira
N5-N28:D36:Y1-U33-Z4
Khatira
xa-ti-ra
Khatira
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 3
8.3 Nebfaura
N5-V30:I9-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2
Nebfaura
nb-fAw-ra
Nebfaura
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 4
8.4 Sehabra
N5-S29-V28-b-W3:N5
Sehabra
s-HAb-ra
Sehabra
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 5
8.5 Merdjefara
N5-U7:D21-G1-G41:G37
Merdjefara
mr-DfA-ra
Merdjefara
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 2
10.20 Khamudy
M12-G1-G17-Z7-D46:Z4-T14
Khamudy
xAmwdi
Khamudy
Dynasty XV, Pharaoh 6
11.4 Seankhenra
N5-S29-S34-N35
Seankhenra
s-anx-n-ra
Mentuhetep VII
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 4
11.7 Semenenra
N5-S29-(Y5:N35)-U32-(Y1:N35)
Semenenra
smn.n-ra
Semenenra
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 6
11.8 Seuser..ra
N5-S29-F12-S29-D21:D40
Seuser..ra
swsr.n-ra
Bebiankh
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 7
11.9 Sekhemra Shedwaset
N5-S42-F30:D46-A24-S40-X1:O49-G7
Sekhemra Shedwaset
sxm-ra šd-wAst
Sobekemsaf II
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 8
 

Bibliography

  • Lauth, Franz Joseph Manetho und der Turiner Königs-papyrus, (Munich 1865)
  • Lepsius, Carl Richard Königsbuch der alten Ägypter, (Berlin: 1858)
  • Meyer, Eduard Aegyptische Chronologie, (Berlin 1904)
  • Farina, Giulio Il Papiro dei re, restaurato, (Rome 1938)
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  • pharaoh.se