The Turin Papyrus King List


The Turin Papyrus, also known as the Turin King List, or, the Turin Royal Canon, is a hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Ramesses II (c. 1200 BC), now in the Egyptian Museum in Turin. It is the most extensive list of kings known and is the basis for most of the Egyptian chronology before Ramesses II.

Unlike the other king lists, the Turin Papyrus includes foreign kings that ruled Egypt and lists the names of the rulers, the lengths of reigns in years, months, and days for each individual king. It also includes the names of ephemeral rulers and those ruling over small territories that may be unmentioned in other sources.

The papyrus was found by the Italian traveler Bernardino Drovetti in 1820 at Luxor, Egypt. Sadly, when it was unpacked in Italy, the list had disintegrated into small fragments, most of the list ruined forever.

The Turin Papyrus contain eleven columns and is also divided into ten sections, or dynasties (A-J) if you will, with summations and headings intersecting the list of kings. These dynasties does not synchronize well with Manetho – neither the number of kings, nor number of dynasties. Just have a look in the table below.

The papyrus is divided like this:

DynastyRows and ColumnsDescription
A2.10-3.2538 kings (Dynasties 1-5)
 3.26Summation of A
B4.1-4.1313 kings (Dynasty 6)
 4.14-4.17Summation of A and A+B
 4.18Heading of C?
C4.19-5.917 or 18 kings (Dynasty 8-10)
 5.10Summation of C
 5.11Heading of D
D5.12-5.176 kings (Dynasty 11)
 5.18Summation of D
 5.19Heading of E
E5.20-6.28 kings (Dynasty 12)
 6.3Summation of E
DynastyRows and ColumnsDescription
 6.4Heading of F
F6.5-10.12116 kings (Dynasty 13-14)
 10.13Summation of F
 10.14Heading of G
G10.15-10.206 kings (Dynasty 15)
 10.21Summation of G
 10.22Heading of H
H10.24-10.297 kings (Dynasty 16?)
 10.30Summation of H
I11.1-11.1414 kings (Dynasty 17)
 11.15Summation of I
J11.16-11.172 kings
turinroyalcanon
#HieroglyphsName in listPharaoh
2.10Meni
Y5:N35-M17-A1
Meni
m-n-i
Narmer
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 1
2.11Meni
Y5:N35-M17-Z4-G7
Meni
m-n-i
Narmer
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 1
2.12Teti
X1:X1-Z4-M17-v/
Teti
t-t-i
Aha
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 2
2.13/14Atet...
M17-Z1-//-G7
Atet…
i-t-t..
Djer
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 3
2.15..tiu
//-G1-M17
..tiu
..tiw
Wadj
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 4
2.16Qenenti
Aa8*X1:Z4
Qenenti
q-n-n-ti
Den
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 5
2.17Merigeregipen
U7:D21-U17-Q3:N35
Merigeregipen
mri-grg-ipn
Anedjib
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 6
2.18Semsem
S29-G17-S29-G17
Semsem
sm-sm
Semerkhet
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 7
2.19..beh
//-D58-V28
..beh
..bH
Qaa
Dynasty I, Pharaoh 8
2.20Bauhetepju
//-G30-R4:Z2
Bauhetepju
bAw-Htpiw
Hetepsekhemwy
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 1
2.21Kakau
//-D52:E2-G43
Kakau
kA-kAw
Nebra
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 2
2.22..netjeren
//-nTr-r:n
..netjeren
..nTr-rn
Ninetjer
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 3
2.23..es
//-S29
..es
..s
Wadjnes
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 4
2.24Senedj
G54-//
Senedj
snD
Senedj
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 5
2.25Neferka
F35-D28-Z1
Neferka
nfr-kA
Neferkara I
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 8
3.1Neferkasokar
F35-D28-Z1-O34:V31:D21-Z5-G7
Neferkasokar
nfr-kA-skr
Neferkaseker
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 9
3.10Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Khufu
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 2
3.11Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Djedefra
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 3
3.12Kha..
//-N28://-G7
Kha..
..-xa-..
Khafra
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 4
3.13Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Baka
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 5
3.14Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Menkaura
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 6
3.15Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Shepseskaf
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 7
3.16Name unreadable
//
Name unreadable
..
Thamphthis
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 8
3.17..ka
//-D28-Z1-G7
..ka
..kA
Userkaf
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 1
3.18 Sahura
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 2
3.19 Neferirkara I Kakai
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 3
3.2Hudjefa
V28-I10:I9-G1-G41:G37
Hudjefa
Hw-DfA
Hudjefa I
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 10
3.20 Shepseskara Netjeruser
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 4
3.21 Neferefra Isi
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 5
3.22 Niuserra Ini
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 6
3.23Menkahor
G5-G7-Y5:N35-D28-Z1-G7
Menkahor
mn-kA-Hr
Menkauhor Kaiu
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 7
3.24Djedu
R11-R11
Djedu
Ddw
Djedkara Isesi
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 8
3.25Unas
E34:N35-M17-S29
Unas
wnis
Unas
Dynasty V, Pharaoh 9
3.3Bebeti
D58-D58-X1:Z4-//
Bebeti
b-b-t-i
Khasekhemwy
Dynasty II, Pharaoh 11
3.4Nebka
V30-D28-Z1-//
Nebka
nb-kA
Nebka
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 1
3.5Djeserit
D45:D21-M17-X1-G7
Djeserit
Dsr-it
Djeser
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 2
3.6Djeserti
D45:D21-X1:Z4-G7
Djeserti
Dsr-ti
Sekhemkhet
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 3
3.7Hudjefa
//-G41:G37-G7
Hudjefa
HwDfA
Hudjefa II
Dynasty III, Pharaoh 4
3.9Snefer..
S29-F35-//-G7
Snefer..
s-nfr..
Sneferu
Dynasty IV, Pharaoh 1
4.1 Teti II
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 1
4.10Nefer
F35-I9:D21-G7
Nefer
nfr
Neferkara Neby
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 4
4.2 Userkara
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 2
4.20Neferkara
N5-F35-D28-Z1-G7
Neferkara
nfr-kA-ra
Neferkara III
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 2
4.21Khet-ity
F32:t-A50-U33-i-G7-//
Khet-ity
xt-iti
Wahkara Khety I
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 1
4.22Senenh..
S29-M23-M23-N35:N35-A53-O4
Senenh..
s-sw-sw-n-n-wi-h
Isu
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 24
4.23..nu..
//-W24-//
..nu..
..nw..
Iytenu
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 25
4.23Neferkara
N5-F35-D28
Neferkara
nfr-kA-ra
Neferkara Khety III
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 4
4.24Meri..
U7:D21-//
Meri..
mri
Meribra Khety II
Dynasty IX, Pharaoh 3
4.3 Pepi I
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 3
4.4 Nemtiemsaf I
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 4
4.5 Pepi II
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 5
4.6 Nemtiemsaf II
Dynasty VI, Pharaoh 6
4.8Nitiqerty
N35:X1*Z5-M17-N29:D21-X1:Z4-G7
Nitiqerty
nit-iqr-ti
Netjerikara
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 1
4.8Saptah
G7-G39-Z1-Q3:X1-V28
Saptah
sA-ptH
Netjerikara
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 1
4.9Neferka
F35-D28-Z1-G7
Neferka
nfr-kA
Neferkara II
Dynasty VIII, Pharaoh 3
5.16Nebhapetra
N5:V30-P8-G7
Nebhapetra
nb-HApt-ra
Mentuhetep II
Dynasty XI, Pharaoh 5
5.17Sankhka..
S29-S34-N35:Aa1-D28
Sankhka..
s-anx-kA..
Mentuhetep III
Dynasty XI, Pharaoh 6
6.1Maatkherura
N5-U4:D36-P8-Z7-A17
Maatkherura
mAat-xrw-ra
Amenemhat IV
Dynasty XII, Pharaoh 7
6.19Sekhemra Khutawy Sebekhetep
N5-Y8-D44:N17:N17-I4-R4:X1*Q3
Sekhemra Khutawy Sebekhetep
sxm-ra xwi-tAwi sbk-Htp
Sebekhetep II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 16
6.2Neferusobekra
N5-F35-F35-F35-I5A-G7
Neferusobekra
nfrw-sbk-ra
Neferusobek
Dynasty XII, Pharaoh 8
6.20User..ra Khendjer
N5-F12-//-Z1-N5:N35-M36:D21
User..ra Khendjer
wsr-..-ra xnDr
Khendjer
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 17
6.20Khendjer
Aa1:N35-M36:D21
Khendjer
xnDr
Khendjer
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 17
6.21..kara
N5-//-D28-G7
..kara
..kA-ra
Imyremeshaw
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 18
6.22..ka
//-D28-Z1
..ka
..kA
Intef IV
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 19
6.22Intef
W25:N35-X1:I9
Intef
ini.it.f
Intef IV
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 19
6.23..ib..
//-F34-Z1-G7
..ib..
..ib..
Seth I
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 20
6.23Seth
C7
Seth
stH
Seth I
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 20
6.24Sekhemra .. Sebekhetep
N5-Y8-//-I5-R4:X1-Q3
Sekhemra .. Sebekhetep
sxm-ra swAD-tAwi sbk-Htp
Sebekhetep III
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 21
6.25Sekhemra Sewadjtawy Sebekhetep
N5-N28:D36-v/-S42-F35-R4:X1*Q3
Sekhemra Sewadjtawy Sebekhetep
sxm-ra swAD-tAwi sbk-Htp
Neferhetep I
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 22
6.26Sahathor
N5-O6-X1:O1-G5-G7-G38&Z1-G7
Sahathor
sA-HtHr
Sahathor
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 23
6.27Khaneferra
N5-N28:D36-Y1-F35-I3-R4:X1*Q3
Khaneferra
xai-nfr-ra
Sebekhetep IV
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 24
6.5Khutawyra
N5-D43:N17:N17-G7
Khutawyra
xw-tAwi-ra
Khutawyra Wegaf
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 1
6.6Sekhemkara
N5-Y8-D28-Z1
Sekhemkara
sxm-kA-ra
Amenemhat V
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 2
7.1Khahetepra
N5-N28:D36:Y1-R4:X1*Q3
Khahetepra
xai-Htp-ra
Sebekhetep V
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 25
7.13..mesu?
//-F31-S29-Z5
..mesu?
..-ms-s-ms
Dedumose II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 34
7.14..maatra
N5-//-U4:D40-X1-H6
..maatra
..-mAat-ra
Ibi II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 35
7.14Ibi
M17-D58-E8-M17-A1
Ibi
ibi
Ibi II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 35
7.15..webenra
N5-v/-G43-D58-(N35:N5)
..webenra
..ben-ra
Hor II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 36
7.15Hor
G5-v/
Hor
Hr..
Hor II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 36
7.16Se--kara
N5-S29-//-D28-Z1-G7
Se–kara
s..kA-ra
Se..kara
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 37
7.17..enra
N5-//-(Y1:N35)
..enra
..n-ra
Senebmiu
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 38
7.2Wahibra Iaib
N5-V29-V28-Y1:F34*Z1-M17-D36:N35:N35:N35-A24-F34:Z1
Wahibra Iaib
wAH-ib-ra iai-ib
Wahibra Jaib
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 26
7.22Merkheperra
N5-U7:D21-L1
Merkheperra
mr-xpr-ra
Merkheperra
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 39
7.23Merkara
N5-U7-D28-Z1
Merkara
mr-kA-ra
Merkara
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 40
7.4Merhetepra
N5-U7:D21-R4:X1*Q3
Merhetepra
mr-r-Htp-ra
Sebekhetep VI
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 28
7.5Sankhenra Sewadjtu
N5-S29-S34-N35:Aa1:N35-S29-M13-X1:Z7
Sankhenra Sewadjtu
sanx-n-ra swADtw
Sewadjtu
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 29
7.6Mersekhemra Ined
N5-U7:D21-S42-Z1-M17-K1:N35-D46:G36
Mersekhemra Ined
mr-sxm-ra ind
Neferhetep II
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 30
7.7Sewadjkara
N5-S29-M13-D28-Z1-G7
Sewadjkara
swAD-kA-ra
Hori
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 31
7.8Merkau(ra) Sebek(hetep)
v/-U7:D21-D28-Z1-v/-I3-//
Merkau(ra) Sebek(hetep)
mr-kAw-[ra] sbk-[Htp]
Sebekhetep VII
Dynasty XIII, Pharaoh 32
8.1Nehesi
G21-V28-S29-Z4-T14
Nehesi
nHsi
Nehesi
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 1
8.2Khatira
N5-N28:D36:Y1-U33-Z4
Khatira
xa-ti-ra
Khatira
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 3
8.3Nebfaura
N5-V30:I9-F40-Z7:X1-Y1:Z2
Nebfaura
nb-fAw-ra
Nebfaura
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 4
8.4Sehabra
N5-S29-V28-b-W3:N5
Sehabra
s-HAb-ra
Sehabra
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 5
8.5Merdjefara
N5-U7:D21-G1-G41:G37
Merdjefara
mr-DfA-ra
Merdjefara
Dynasty XIV, Pharaoh 2
10.20Khamudy
M12-G1-G17-Z7-D46:Z4-T14
Khamudy
xAmwdi
Khamudy
Dynasty XV, Pharaoh 6
11.4Seankhenra
N5-S29-S34-N35
Seankhenra
s-anx-n-ra
Mentuhetep VII
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 4
11.7Semenenra
N5-S29-(Y5:N35)-U32-(Y1:N35)
Semenenra
smn.n-ra
Semenenra
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 6
11.8Seuser..ra
N5-S29-F12-S29-D21:D40
Seuser..ra
swsr.n-ra
Bebiankh
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 7
11.9Sekhemra Shedwaset
N5-S42-F30:D46-A24-S40-X1:O49-G7
Sekhemra Shedwaset
sxm-ra šd-wAst
Sobekemsaf II
Dynasty XVII, Pharaoh 8

Bibliography

  • Lauth, Franz Joseph Manetho und der Turiner Königs-papyrus, (Munich 1865)
  • Lepsius, Carl Richard Königsbuch der alten Ägypter, (Berlin: 1858)
  • Meyer, Eduard Aegyptische Chronologie, (Berlin 1904)
  • Farina, Giulio Il Papiro dei re, restaurato, (Rome 1938)
  • Gardiner, Alan Royal Canon of Turin, (London 1959)
  • Ryholt, Kim The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, (Copenhagen 1997)
  • pharaoh.se

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